Improve Java perforamnce: Microbenchmarking with JHM

Improve Java perforamnce: Microbenchmarking with JHM


In this article we’ll have a quick look into JMH (Java Microbenchmarking Harness), guiding you through its usage, best practices, and how it can elevate your Java code’s performance.

JHM is an OpenJDK project specifically designed for benchmarking small code snippets. It provides a reliable and extensible framework for benchmarking Java code, allowing developers to measure the performance of functions, methods, or even entire classes accurately.

Setting Up JMH

Before diving into benchmarking, you need to set up JMH:

  1. Include JHM in your project: Add the JMH dependencies to your project. If you’re using Maven, include org.openjdk.jmh.jmh-core in your pom.xml
  2. Create a Benchmark Class: Annotate your benchmark class with @State(Scope.Benchmark) to indicate that it holds benchmark state
  3. Write Benchmarks: Define methods as benchmarks, annotating them with @Benchmark. JMH will run these methods to measure their performance

Benchmarking Best Practices

  1. Warmup Iterations and Measurement Iterations: JMH runs a certain number of warmup iterations before starting the actual measurements. Tweak these numbers based on the characteristics of your code
    @Warmup(iterations = 3, time = 1)
    @Measurement(iterations = 5, time = 1)
  2. Benchmark Mode: Specify the benchmark mode using @BenchmarkMode. Common modes include Mode.Throughput and Mode.AverageTime
  3. Threads: Control the number of threads running the benchmarks. Adjust @Threads based on the intended concurrency of your code
  4. Profiling: Enable profilers like -prof gc or -prof stack to gather additional insights during benchmarking
    @Fork(value = 1, jvmArgsAppend = {"-prof", "gc"})
  5. Result Format: Customize the result format to suit your needs. Common formats include ResultFormatType.JSON or ResultFormatType.CSV

Interpreting JMH Results

Interpreting JMH results is crucial for deriving meaningful insights. Key metrics include throughput, average time, and the standard deviation. Leverage the generated reports to analyze and compare different benchmarks


Java Microbenchmarking Harness empowers developers to meticulously analyze the performance of their Java code. By following best practices, setting up benchmarks, and interpreting results accurately, you can unlock the full potential of JMH in enhancing your code’s efficiency and discover performance bottlenecks. Incorporate JMH into your development workflow, and witness the transformation of your Java code into optimized, high-performance applications. Happy benchmarking!

Roberto Founder and Author of Codevup